Herbivores on Phragmites in North America (View the presentation with Powerpoint (200k))
Abstract: Over the past several decades, Phragmites australis populations in North America have dramatically increased in wetlands, particularly along the Atlantic Coast. All current control methods produce only partial or short-term control. Biological control has been proposed as a long-term control measure for P. australis. A table of insect herbivores known to feed on P. australis is provided as an important resource prior to serious consideration of biological control (Table 1). According to our literature review and field survey, there are 26 insect herbivore species known to feed on Phragmites australis in North America; 16 are recent introductions, five species are of unknown status, and only five are native. Only the Yuma skipper, Ochlodes yuma (Edwards), a species distributed throughout the western United States, and a gall midge,Calamomyia phragmites Felt, are considered native and monophagous on P. australis.