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Transtheoretical Model

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HIV & Safer Sex: Self Efficacy

Safer sex is first defined for participants as any combination of the following behavioral strategies:

A) Abstinence from vaginal and anal intercourse.

B) Condom Use with all vaginal and anal sexual partners.

C) Sexually exclusive relationship with only one partner in the past year who hastested negative for HIV antibodies.

Participants are then instructed to rate their level of confidence in having safer sex and temptation to have unprotected sex on a five-point Likert scale (1 = Not at all confident/tempted to 5 = very confident/tempted) in the following situations.

Items used for the Confidence in Safer Sex (CSS) and

Temptation for Unprotected Sex (TUS) scales ordered by subscale.

Sexual Arousal

When I really want sex. a

box

When I am really sexually excited. b

box

When I am really sexually aroused. c

box

Substance Use

When I am affected by alcohol or drugs. a

box

When I am a little drunk or high. b

box

When I am under the influence of alcohol or drugs. c

box

Partner Pressure

When my partner pressures me to take a chance this time. a

box

When my partner gets annoyed about having safer sex. b

box

When my partner is insulted that I want safer sex. c

box

Negative Affect

When I am upset. a

box

When I feel depressed. b

box

When I am feeling angry. c

box

Perceived Low Risk

When there’s not much risk. a

box

When the risk seems low. b

box

When I think the risk is small. c

box

Note: A “c” superscript means that this item was not included in the 10-item full scale or the 2-item subscales. An “a” or “b” superscript indicates that the item was included in either the A or B alternative version of the 5-item full scale with no subscales. See Redding & Rossi (1999) for more details.

References

Redding, C.A. & Rossi, J.S. (1999). Testing a model of situational self-efficacy for safer sex among college students: Stage and gender-based differences. Psychology and Health, 14(3), 467-486.

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