Cancer Prevention Research Center

Dedicated to helping people change their behavior for living longer, healthier lives


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Transtheoretical Model

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Phone: 401-874-2830
FAx: 401-874-5562

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Exercise: Self-Efficacy

This part looks at how confident you are to exercise when other things get in the way. Read the following items enter in the box the number that best expresses how each item relates to you in your leisure time. Please answer using the following 5-point scale:

1 = Not at all confident
2 = Somewhat confident
3 = Moderately confident
4 = Very confident
5 = Completely confident

Subscale and items  (Alpha)

Negative Affect (.852)


I am under a lot of stress.**

I am depressed.

I am anxious.

Excuse Making (.829)

I feel I don’t have the time.**

I don’t feel like it.

I am busy.

Must Exercise Alone (.869)

I am alone.

I have to exercise alone.**

My exercise partner decides not to exercise that day.

Inconvenient to Exercise (.773)

I don’t have access to exercise equipment.**

I am traveling.

My gym is closed.

Resistance from Others (.853)

My friends don’t want me to exercise.

My significant other does not want me to exercise.

I am spending time with friends or family who do not exercise.**

Bad Weather (.837)

It’s raining or snowing.**

It’s cold outside.

The roads or sidewalks are snowy.

Note: ** Items to be used for six-item self-efficacy short assessment. (If possible we recommend using the 18-item version).


Benisovich, S.V., Rossi, J.S., Norman, G.J., and Nigg, C.R. (March, 1998). A multidimensional approach to exercise self-efficacy: Relationship with exercise behavior and attitudes towards exercise. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the New England Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Benisovich, S.V., Rossi, J.S., Norman, G.J. & Nigg, C.R. (March, 1998). Development of a multidimensional measure of exercise self-efficacy. Poster presented at the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM). New Orleans, LA.

Marcus, B.H., Selby, V.C., Niaura, R.S., & Rossi, J.S. (1992). Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63, 60-66.

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