Cancer Prevention Research Center

Dedicated to helping people change their behavior for living longer, healthier lives


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Transtheoretical Model

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130 Flagg Road
Kingston, RI 02881
Phone: 401-874-2830
FAx: 401-874-5562

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Monday - Friday
9:00am - 5:00pm

Smoking: Processes of Change (Short Form)

The following experiences can affect the smoking habits of some people. Think of any similar experiences you may be currently having or have had in the last month. Then rate the FREQUENCY of this event on the following five point scale.

1 = Never
2 = Seldom
3 = Occasionally
4 = Often
5 = Repeatedly

1. When I am tempted to smoke I think about something else.
2. I tell myself I can quit if I want to.
3. I notice that nonsmokers are asserting their rights.
4. I recall information people have given me on the benefits of quitting smoking.
5. I can expect to be rewarded by others if I don’t smoke.
6. I stop to think that smoking is polluting the environment.
7. Warnings about the health hazards of smoking move me emotionally.
8. I get upset when I think about my smoking.
9. I remove things from my home or place of work that remind me of smoking.
10. I have someone who listens when I need to talk about my smoking.
11. I think about information from articles and ads about how to stop smoking.
12. I consider the view that smoking can be harmful to the environment.
13. I tell myself that if I try hard enough I can keep from smoking.
14. I find society changing in ways that makes it easier for nonsmokers.
15. My need for cigarettes makes me feel disappointed in myself.
16. I have someone I can count on when I’m having problems with smoking.
17. I do something else instead of smoking when I need to relax.
18. I react emotionally to warnings about smoking cigarettes.


I keep things around my home or place of work that remind me not to smoke.


I am rewarded by others if I don’t smoke.


Experiential Processes
   Consciousness Raising 4, 11
   Environmental  6, 12
   Self-Reevaluation 8, 15
   Social Liberation 3, 14
   Dramatic Relief 7, 18
Behavioral Processes
   Helping Relationships 10, 16
   Self-Liberation 2, 13
   Counterconditioning 1, 17
   Reinforcement  5, 20
   Stimulus Control 9, 19


Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., & Fava, J.L. (1988). Measuring the processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.

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