Mark Hartman


Dr. Hartman’s research examines the neural underpinnings of the sense of exertional fatigue as well as the psychophysiological mechanisms underlying physical activity behavior. His current research projects involve examining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for modulating exertional fatigue and increasing exercise adherence.


Dr. Hartman’s research examines the psychological and neurological processes associated with physical activity. Specifically, Dr. Hartman investigates the neural underpinnings of the sense of exertional fatigue and the mechanisms underlying physical activity behavior and adherence. His current work focuses on modulating the sense of exertional fatigue using transcranial electric stimulation (tES). Understanding the neural basis of exertional fatigue will guide the development of a potential treatment for clinical fatigue.


  • Ph.D., Kinesiology (Exercise Psychology), Iowa State University
  • M.S., Exercise Physiology, Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • M.A., Sport and Exercise Psychology, Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • B.A., Psychology (Neuroscience minor), Gustavus Adolphus College

Selected Publications

Hartman, M.E., Ladwig, M., & Ekkekakis, P. (2021). Contactless differentiation of pleasant and unpleasant valence: Assessment of the acoustic startle eyeblink response with infrared reflectance oculography. Behavior Research Methods, 53, 2092-2104.

Roloff, Z.A., Dicks, N.D., Krynski, L.M., Hartman, M.E., Ekkekakis, P., & Pettitt, R.W. (2020). Ratings of affective valence closely track changes in oxygen uptake: Application to high-intensity interval exercise. Performance Enhancement & Health, 7(3), 100158. doi: 10.1016/j.peh.2020.100158

Hartman, M.E., Ekkekakis, P., Dicks, N.D., & Pettitt, R.W. (2019). Dynamics of pleasure-displeasure at the limit of exercise tolerance: Conceptualizing the sense of exertional physical fatigue as an affective response. Journal of Experimental Biology, 222(3), jeb186585. doi: 10.1242/jeb.186585

Saari, A., Dicks, N.D., Hartman, M.E., & Pettitt, R. . (2019). Validation of the 3-minute all-out exercise test for shuttle running prescription. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(6), 1678-1684. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002120

Ekkekakis, P., Hartman, M.E., & Ladwig, M.A. (2018). Mass media representations of the evidence as a possible deterrent to recommending exercise for the treatment of depression: Lessons five years after the extraordinary case of TREAD-UK. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(16), 1860-1871. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1423856

Ladwig, M. ., Hartman, M.E., & Ekkekakis, P. (2017). Affect-based exercise prescription: An idea whose time has come? ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 21(5), 10-15. doi: 10.1249/FIT.0000000000000332