The Transtheoretical model is currently conceptualized in terms of several major dimensions. The core constructs, around which the other dimensions are organized, is the stages of change. These represent ordered categories along a continuum of motivational readiness to change a problem behavior. Transitions between the stages of change are effected by a set of independent variables known as the processes of change. The model also incorporates a series of intervening or outcome variables. These include decisional balance (the pros and cons of change), self-efficacy (confidence in the ability to change across problem situations), situational temptations to engage in the problem behavior, and behaviors which are specific to the problem area. Also included among these intermediate or dependent variables would be any other psychological, environmental, cultural, socioeconomic, physiological, biochemical, or even genetic variables or behavior specific to the problem being studied.


Selections of the text contained in these Trantheoretical Model pages have been adapted from the following articles.

Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. London: Cassel & Collier Macmillan.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., & Fava, J. L. (1988). Measuring processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M. G., Marcus, B. H., Rakowski, W., Fiore, C., Harlow, L. L., Redding, C. A., Rosenbloom, D., & Rossi, S. R. (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for twelve problem behaviors. Health Psychology, 13, 39-46.

Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., & Brandenburg N. (1985). Decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1279-1289.

Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., Rossi, J. S., & Prochaska, J. O. (1990). Relapse situations and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 271-283.