Apostolidis, E.; Li, L.; Kang, B.; Lee, C.M.; Seeram, N.P. Seasonal influence on phenolic-mediated antihyperglycemic properties of Canadian sugar and red maple leaves using in vitro assay models. Food Science and Biotechnology, 2012, 3, 753-760.
Red and sugar maple leaves collected in the summer and fall from Canada, were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase inhibitory activities variation. The phenolic contents of summer red maple leaves (RML-S) and summer sugar maple leaves (SML-S) were higher than red and sugar maple leaves collected in fall (RML-F and SML-F, respectively). HPLC analyses showed differences in phenolic compounds present in the SML samples compared to the RML samples. The extracts were assayed for yeast and rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Both results showed that SML-S extracts had the highest inhibitory activity which could possibly be attributed to the unique phenolics present therein. Milder effects were observed in terms of α-amylase inhibitory activity, with RML-F having the highest inhibitory activity. These results suggest that maple tree leaf extracts may have potential for phenolic-mediated α-glucosidase inhibition, relevant to type 2 diabetes management, with SML-S extract having the highest bioactivity.