Clinical Pharmacokinetics
and Pharmacodynamics

Sara Rosenbaum is Professor of Pharmacokinetics at the University of Rhode Island and is involved in teaching and research in the broad area of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. She is interested in applying modeling and simulation of drug response data as tools to more fully understand the time course and intensity of drug effects in man. She is interested in applying these methods in research to obtain a greater understanding of a drug’s properties in different populations. She also develops interactive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models to demonstrate fundamental drug properties.

iMODA Simulation Models

Model 1: Introduction to PK, PD, and Dosing

Model 2: Simple Drug Transporter Model

Model 3: Hepatic Clearance Model

Model 4: Single Injection in a 1-Compartment Model

Model 5: Single Injection in a 2-Compartment Model

Model 6: First Order Absorption in a 1-Compartment Model: A Single Oral Dose

Model 7: Constant Continuous Drug Administration

Model 8: Infusion Challenge

Model 9: Multiple Bolus Injections

Model 10: Multiple Intermittent Infusions

Model 11: Multiple Oral Doses

Model 12: Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics and Phenytoin

Model 13: DDI 1 Time Dependent Enzyme Inhibition

Model 14: DDI 2, Enzyme Induction

Model 15: DDI 3, Reversible Inhibition: Fluconazole and Midazolam

Model 16: DDI 4 Time Dependent Inhibition-Paroxetine and Desipramine

Model 17: DDI 5 Hepatic and Intestinal Metabolism

Model 18: Example PBPK Model

Model 19: Drug Response, Sigmoidal Emax Model

Model 20: Pharmacodynamic DDIs

Model 21: Effect Compartment

Model 22: Indirect Effect Compartment Model I

Model 23: Indirect Effect Compartment Model II

Model 24: Indirect Effect Compartment Model III

Model 25: Indirect Effect Compartment Model IV

Model 26: Transit Compartment Model of Drug Response

Model 27: Hematological Toxicity of Anticancer Drugs

Model 28: Drug Tolerance: Hypothetical Antagonist Model

Model 29: Tolerance: Precursor Pool Depletion Model

Model 30: Proton Pump Inhibitors- Model For Irreversible Drug Effects

Model 31: Integrated PK-PD Model For Lipoamide

Model 32: PBPK Permeability Controlled Model With Transporters

Model 33: Operational Model of Agonism



Sara Rosenbaum is interested in understanding the dose-response relationship through the analysis of a drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. She has used NONMEM to create population models and study various patient demographics as potential sources of variability in drug response.  She is also interested in creating integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic simulation models to better understand the dose-response relationship. She has created models in almost all therapeutic areas and has more recently  been working in the area of biologics. Some examples of Sara Rosenbaum’s published work is provided below.

  • Jackson, K.A., Rosenbaum, S.E., Yuen, G., Pipavola, Y., Kerr, B. and Dudley M.N. A Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Nelfinavir Mesylate in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Patients Enrolled in a Phase III Clinical Trial. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 44, 1832-1837, 2000.
  • Rosenbaum, SE., Baheti G., Akhlaghi F., Trull AK. Population Pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporine in Thoracic Transplant Patients. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 27 116-122,  2005.
  • Sam, W, Akhalghi, F and Rosenbaum S. Population Pharmacokinetics of Mycophenolic Acid and its Metabolites in Renal Transplant Patients. Clin Pharmacol Therap 79, P47, 2006.
  • Rosenbaum SE, Lee W and Powell P.. Interactive Computer Programs To Teach Clinical Pharmacokinetics And Dose Optimization Methods. J Clin Pharmacol, 46, 1075 2006 .
  • Population Pharmacokinetics of Mycophenolic Acid and its Two Glucuronidated Metabolites in Kidney Transplant Recipients.  Wai-Johnn Sam, Ph.D., Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Ph.D., Sara E. Rosenbaum, Ph.D. J Clin Pharmacol 49. 185-195, 2009
  • Narwal,  R, Akhlaghi, F, Aasberg, A, Herman M and Rosenbaum, SE.  Development of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Atorvastatin Acid and its Lactone Metabolite. Clin. Pharmacokinetics, 49 693-702, 2010.
  • Lu, H and Rosenbaum, SE. Developmental Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Populations. J Ped Pharmacol Therap 19 262-276,  2014
  • Chung, J, Bratberg, J and Rosenbaum, S. Model For Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression and its Reversal By Naloxone. The Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse, 2017


Custom Models

Custom pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic models can be created for specific drugs or biologicals. The custom models are distributed through a secure, password protected server. Contact Dr. Rosenbaum for more information.

Sara Rosenbaum, Ph.D.

Sara Rosenbaum

View Dr. Rosenbaum‘s Bio


  • cholab

    Basic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: An Integrated Textbook and Computer Simulations 2nd Edition

    By: Sara E. Rosenbaum, Ph.D.
    An Integrated Textbook with Computer Simulations, which provides a comprehensive account of essential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts. The textbook also incorporates interactive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic simulation models to allow students to visualize important principles and experiment with the design of drug dosing regimens.     

    Purchase from Amazon